Antioxidant, biochemical and histologic responses to exposure to selected water bodies within Lagos Mainland, Nigeria

[Speaker] Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi:1
[Co-author] Joy A Oladimeji Salami:1,3, Oreoluwa Okebukunola:1, David Adeyemi:2, Abidemi J Akindele:1
1:Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine University of Lagos, Nigeria, 2:Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria, 3:National Biotechnology Development Agency, Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria

Background: This study investigated the sub-chronic toxicity of polluted water bodies on albino rats as well as multicomponent mixture that contained pharmaceutical compounds detected in the water bodies, mixed at a ratio corresponding to their individual highest concentrations detected, was determined.
Methods: Water samples were collected from four different locations in Lagos environment: Iganmu (E1), Isolo (E2), Maryland (E3) and Ipaja (E4); their physicochemical parameters were assessed and selected pharmaceutical residues were quantified. The effect of daily oral exposure to 10 ml/kg body weight of the water samples for 90 days on the biochemical and antioxidant parameters was evaluated. Parameters such as serum oxidative stress markers, biochemistry and histological studies in renal and hepatic tissues were determined.
Results: The results revealed the presence of pharmaceutical residues in the water samples; low dissolved oxygen levels and elevated COD and BOD levels. Triglyceride, ALT, AST, urea, creatinine were significantly elevated (p<0.05) and total protein and albumin levels decreased (p<0.05) in male and female rats in groups E1, E3, E4 and E5. Elevated MDA levels in treatment groups and reduced antioxidant enzymes in treatment groups were also observed. Histologic examination showed congestion of the hepatic sinusoids in the liver and mild to moderate necrosis in the kidneys of male and female rats after 90 days exposure. Furthermore, pathologic changes were also seen in the testes of male rats.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the increased serum biochemical parameters, elevated MDA levels, decreased SOD and CAT levels as well as pathological changes observed in the rats after 90 days exposure suggest a link between the polluted water samples and hepatic and renal toxicity.

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