Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae) as a medicinal plant in Benin

[Speaker] Victorien Tamègnon DOUGNON:1
[Co-author] BANKOLE Honoré Sourou:1, BABA-MOUSSA Lamine Saïd:2, EDORH Patrick Aléodjrodo:3
1:Department of Human Biology, Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of natural substances, Research Laboratory in Applied Biology, Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin, 2:Laboratory of Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin, 3:Laboratory of Research in Biochemistry and Toxicology of the Environment (LARBITE), Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques (FAST), University of Abomey-Cal, Benin

Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100.
The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett's T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett's t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level.
Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves) resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon.
This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted.
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