Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Trianthema portulacastrum

[Speaker] Ishola O Ishola:1
[Co-author] Temitope O Falade:1, Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi:1
1:Pharmacology, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Trianthema portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) is used in traditional African Medicine (TAM) for the treatment of various illnesses including amenorrhea, dropsy, inflammation, rheumatism and kidney disease. This study sought to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous whole plant extract of Trianthema portulacastrum (ATP). Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice. The Carrageenan and Complete Freud's Adjuvant (CFA) tests in rats were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory actions of ATP. ATP (10, 50, or 250 mg/kg; p.o.) produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition (41.10, 50.40, and 67.10%, respectively) of writhing response elicited by acetic acid. ATP increased pain threshold in thermal-induced nociception, evidenced in significant prolongation of the reaction times with peak maximum possible effect (MPE; 22.98%) obtained at 250 mg/kg (30 min post-treatment). Morphine 10 mg/kg, produced an MPE of 44.20%, 90 min post-treatment in the hot-plate test. The pretreatment of mice with Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA; neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or naloxone (non- selective opioid receptor antagonist) prevented ATP-induced antinociception. In respect of anti-inflammatory activity, ATP caused significant (P<0.05) and time course inhibition of carrageenan-induced oedema with peak effect (50.60%) at 250 mg/kg, ibuprofen (100 mg/kg) produced (39.24% inhibition; 6 h post-carrageenan injection). Similarly, ATP (250 mg/kg) significantly reduced CFA-induced arthritis by 58.56%, on day 27 post-CFA which was similar to the effect of celecoxib (60.61%). Moreover, the decrease in locomotor activity and staircase climbing induced by CFA were reversed by ATP. CFA produced a time course increase in arthritic index (4.00±0.00) was significantly reduced by ATP 250 mg/kg (18.75%). ATP administration also prevented CFA-induced oxido-nitrosative stress and intense infiltration of inflammatory cells. Findings from this study suggest that the aqueous whole plant extract of Trianthema portulacastrum possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities possibly mediated through peripheral and central mechanisms involving inhibition of release and/or actions of inflammatory cells. The results justify the use of the extract in TAM for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
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