Valuation of some plants of the traditional Beninese pharmacopoeia used in the control of pathogenic enterobacteria

[Speaker] Kossi Brice Boris M. Legba:1,2
[Co-author] Victorien M. Dougnon:2, Jean-Marc M. Ategbo:3, Gildas M. Hounmanou:2, Edna Mrs. Hounsa:2, Jerrold M. Agbankpe:2, Honore M. Bankole:2, Jacques M. Dougnon:2, Lamine M. Baba-Moussa:1
1:Biochimie, Laboratory in Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin, 2:Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of Natural Substances, Research Laboratory in Applied Biology, Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin, 3:Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin

Increasingly, medicinal plants are an alternative for the search of new antibacterial molecules in the face of the resistances of pathogenic enterobacteria to classical antibiotics. This study aims at the valuation of medicinal plants used in the fight against pathogenic Enterobacteria in Benin. The technique of triplet purchase of medicinal recipe was used to explore the knowledge of market herbalists on plants used in the treatment of salmonellosis in Benin, an enteropathogen par excellence. The technique of diffusion in wells coupled with determination by Microdilution of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (CMB) was used for antibacterial testing. The larval cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated with the crustacean Artemia salina larvae. The flavonoids and polyphenols were assayed by the method using aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) as the reagent and the method using the folin-Ciocalteu reagent, respectively. The results of the survey revealed that Senna siamea, Uvaria chamae, Lantana camara and Phyllantus amarus are among the most widely used plants for the treatment of salmonellosis in Benin. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of these plants showed an effective antibacterial activity at 100 mg per Ml with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of 100 to 25 mg by ml and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of 100 to 50 mg by ml. The inhibition diameters of the extracts varied between 7.5 and 21 mm. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Phyllantus amarus showed the best antibacterial activity. None of the extracts tested was cytotoxic at the dose of 20 mg/ml. All the extracts of the studied plants are rich in flavonoids and polyphenols. The aqueous Uvaria chamae root extract has the highest polyphenol content(231,896552 µg EAG/100 mg of extract) whereas the aqueous leaf extract of Uvaria chamae is the richest in flavonoids(41,061082 µg ER/100 mg of extract). These results justify the traditional use of the plants studied in the control of pathogenic enterobacteria. An in vivo exploration of their efficacy would allow serious consideration of the development of improved Traditional Medicines against the microorganisms tested.
Key words: pathogenic enterobacteria, Phyllantus amarus, antibacterial test


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