Antidiarrheal Activity of Ethanolic Stem Bark Extract of Newbouldia laevis in Castor oil Induced Diarrhea in Rats

[Speaker] Adeyinka A. Aderinola:1
[Co-author] Jane I. Ejiofor:2
1:Department of Pharmacology, Olabisi Onabanjo university, Ago-iwoye, Nigeria, 2:Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria., Nigeria

Background and Objective: Diarrhea disease is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries requiring urgent attention. Many of the conventional antidiarrheal drugs suffer from serious adverse effects, thus the need to screen various plants for their medicinal values becomes imperative. This study was done to investigate the anti-diarrhea activity of ethanolic stem bark extract of Newbouldia laevis in castor-oil induced diarrhea in rats.
Material and Methods: The stem bark of Newbouldia laevis was collected in June, 2016 from Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, air-dried, ground, macerated in 90% ethanol and concentrated to dryness in a water bath. The dry extract was then reconstituted using distilled-water. Fifty (50) wistar albino rats of both sexes were used. They were divided into 2 groups: A and B of twenty (25) rats per group. Group A was used for the gastro-intestinal motility test using charcoal meal. The rats were divided into five groups. Graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) was orally administered to the three treatment groups. Loperamide (1mg/kg) was used as the positive control, the rats was then fed with charcoal meal. After 30mins, the rats were sacrificed and the distance travelled by the charcoal meal was measured.
Group B was used for castor-oil induced diarrhea test. The rats were also divided into five groups and treated as above, 1hour after treatment, diarrhea was induced by oral administration of castor-oil (1ml/rat). Anti-diarrhea activity was determined by counting the number of hard and soft pellets every hour over 4 hour period. Statistical analysis of the data was done using ANOVA followed by Dunnett multiple comparison test.
Results: The extract (250-1000mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.05) antidiarrheal activity by decreasing the distance of gastrointestinal motility of rats and also inhibited the severity of diarrhea induced by castor oil in a dose dependent manner when compared with the control. This activity could be attributed to phytochemicals like flavonoids and tannins present in Newbouldia laevis.
Conclusion: The result showed that stem bark extract of Newbouldia laevis possess significant anti-diarrhea property and this supports the traditional use of the plant in treatment of diarrhea.
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