Improved memory cognition and retention by Ghrelin in intra-cerebroventricular streptozotocin model in rat

[Speaker] Ishumeet Kaur Bajwa:1
[Co-author] Violina Kakoty:1, Rohit Goyal:1
1:School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, India

Alzheimer's disease is a type of dementia characterized by pathological accumulation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangle. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in central nervous system. Ghrelin administration in brain increased memory retention specifically in memory related to food. Calcium ion channels play an important role in the neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. The present study was designed to investigate the role of ghrelin in ICV STZ induced impaired memory and cognition in rats possibly via blockage of calcium channels and its assessment for neuronal oxidative stress and signalling.
Male Wistar rats (220 to 260 g), n=6 were clustered in five different groups: normal control, Sham, STZ control, n Octanoic acid (100 micro lit, high dose, i.p., for 21 days) + ICV STZ (3mg/kg bilaterally), n Octanoic acid (50 micro lit, low dose, i.p., for 21 days) + ICV STZ, and n Octanoic acid (100 micro lit, high dose, i.p., for 21 days) + ICV STZ + Nefidipine (10mg/kg, i.p., for 21 days). ICV STZ was administered on the first day. Impairments in cognition, memory consolidation and retention were assessed using morris water maze, Y maze, balance beam, open field and photoactometer test. The biochemical estimations for oxidative stress i.e. lipid peroxidation, glutathione, and acetylcholinesterase were made in rat brain homogenate. Statistical analysis was carried out using graph pad prism 5.
ICV STZ treated animals exhibited memory deficits in morris water maze, y maze, balance beam, open field and photoactometer test. Administration of low and high doses of n octanoic acid produced significant restoration of memory impairment. Nefidipine however caused moderate impairment in memory functions. Biochemical estimations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glutathione, acetylcholinesterase levels in brain revealed a similar trend.
The finding of the present study revealed that ghrelin (n octanoic acid) plays pivotal role in improving memory cognition and consolidation in ICV STZ treated animals which is relevant to the dementia of Alzheimer's type.
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