Ameliorative potential of combination of Tribulus terrestris, Boerhaavia diffusa and Terminalia chebula against mercury chloride induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats

[Speaker] Yogendra K Gupta:1
[Co-author] Umashankar Sharma:1, Harlokesh N Yadav:1, Surender Singh:1
1:Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Background: Heavy metals such as mercury are known to cause the generation of free radicals and oxidative stress which are associated with renal injury. The herbal drugs Tribulus terrestris (TT), Boerhaavia diffusa (BD), and Terminalia chebula (TC) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Present study has been designed to evaluate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of TT alone and in combination of BD and TC in mercury chloride induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.
Methods: Treatment with TT alone was started from day 1st to day 7th at a dose of 100/200/300 mg/kg p.o. once daily and with combinations of each of TT, BD and TC at equal ratio at a dose of (66/100/200 of each) mg/kg p.o. once daily for seven days. Nephrotoxicity was induced by administration of mercury chloride 5 mg/kg, (i.p.) once on 5th day in all groups except normal control. Baseline levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured. Kidney injury molecule -1 (KIM-1), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FAB), renal histopathology, and mercury content in kidney tissue were also determined by ICPMS.
Results: Single dose administration of mercury chloride caused significant elevation of BUN, serum creatinine, MDA, KIM-1, L-FAB with concurrent fall in GSH, SOD, GPx and also altered renal histopathology in disease control group as compared to normal control group (P <0.05). Treatment with TT 200 and 300 mg/kg alone and combination with BD and TC (100 and 200 of each) mg/kg significantly (P <0.05) prevented abnormalities caused by mercury chloride in above parameters and histopathology, except for the renal accumulation of mercury which was comparable to disease control group. However treatment with TT 100 mg/kg alone and combination with BD and TC 66 mg/kg each did not show any significant improvement in any parameters.
Conclusions: Treatment with higher dose TT alone and in combination with BD and TC exerted protection against renal damage induced by mercury chloride possibly due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

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