発表

1C-021

日米における性的指向に関する本質主義的思考──異文化主題分析

[責任発表者] デイビス ブライアン:1
1:大阪府立大学

Specific Aims

Current approaches to investigating laypeople’s thinking about sexual orientation were made possible through a theoretical model of psychological essentialism grounded in social constructionism (Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). Psychological essentialism is thus more than a way of thinking; it can also be an argument that is expressed to support or deny particular forms of identity expression between the self and others (Morton & Postmes, 2009). However, survey methodologies used to operationally define essentialist thinking about sexual orientation at best only partially realize the social constructionist potential of this theory. By critically reconstructing this theory from an epistemological stance rooted in discourse, I investigated laypeople’s own mobilization of culturally shared discourses of sexuality. I sought to answer two research questions: 1) in what ways do laypeople engage in essentialist thinking about homosexual or heterosexual men’s sexuality; and 2) in what ways is laypeople’s thinking explained by their gendered and/or cultural contexts?

Method

Participants were college students in New York City (N = 20; ages 19-25) and Tokyo (N = 21; ages 20-24). I opted for a critical analytic method of thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). I first adapted the work of narrative psychologists in identifying and explicating four transnational discourses of sexuality constituted on the basis of—or in resistance to—an essentialist binary of heterosexual and homosexual orientations: sexual perversion, gender inversion, minority identity, and postgay identity (Hammack, Mayers, & Windell, 2013). Stimulus materials were a selection of vignettes depicting performances of homosexual or heterosexual affect and behavior. Analysis focused on the rich, nuanced and often tension-filled ways participants mobilized these multiple sexual orientation discourses in interpreting these vignettes through individually written, open-ended responses.

Results

I identified three interconnected themes concerning the culturally complex ways participants understood these sexual orientation discourses in Japan and the US (Figure 1). In both contexts I heard a troubling of traditional masculine norms for men and their social roles. The dominance of a gender inversion discourse was evident in Japanese participants’ references to fantastic media depictions of male homosexuality (e.g., Boys Love and onē tarento). These socially sanctioned depictions implicated a cultural privileging of social conformity over self-expression associated with a discursive erasure of non-heterosexualities (Kazama & Kawaguchi, 2010). This discursive pattern diverged from a cultural incitement to individual expression reflective of tensions between identity and subjectivity in the US sample. In both contexts a discourse of minority identity inhibited a rejection of essentialist thinking.

Discussion

An essentialist construct of sexual orientation remains a potent discourse in laypeople’s beliefs about male sexuality in Japan and the US, albeit in cultural distinct ways. Even an otherwise affirmational discourse of minority identity, as a form of essentialist thinking, may inadvertently lead to the “infra-humanization” of non-heterosexual people (Leyens, Yzerbyt, & Schadron, 1994).

キーワード
心理的本質主義/性的指向/文化


詳細検索